For some study courses, a state examination must be undertaken to prepare students for a particular profession of importance to the public interest. This takes account for medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutics, food chemistry, law and teaching (education).
Such professions cannot be pursued without having to pass a 2-stage examination, carried by state examiners and academic professors.
Church and Academic Examination
For students having completed a 5-year study program in theology subject, they’ve to sit a Church and academic examination before landing themselves in the profession. This takes account of jobs as a priest or a pastoral assistant.
Postgraduate Study Courses – Supplementary and Follow-Up Study Courses
Meanwhile or afterward completing bachelor or master studies, there’s an option of taking up additional 2-year long studies in support to the existing studies, or to specialize in a specific study field. These are known as postgraduate study courses.
Examination of Colleges of Art and Music
Some study programs offered by German colleges of art and music are completed by sitting the final examination “Abschlussprüfung” or a concert examination “Konzertexamen”.
PhD Degree – Third German Higher Education Qualification
The third higher education qualification in Germany is the PHD degree. This is a program that is embraced by the most qualified students, and can be taken at German universities and equivalent institutions, in collaboration with non-university research institutes.
There is no standardized period for completing doctoral studies, as this is a more in-depth and individual specialization.
The German doctoral studies include:
Oral examination “Rigorosum”/defense of the doctorate thesis “Disputation”
There are several paths to get a PHD degree in Germany, as follows:
Individual and supervised doctorate.
Cooperative doctorate (combination between universities and universities of applied sciences).
Title received by completing a German PhD study program is Doctor “Doktorgrad”.
Admission Requirements of the German Higher Education Institutions
Admission requirements for German Bachelor Degree:
Higher Education Entrance Qualification. To get admitted in any study course in any higher education institution in Germany, applicants must possess either “The Allgemeine Hochschulreife” commonly referred as “Abitur” or “Fachgebundene Hochschulreife”, or a foreign school-leaving certificate comparable to any of these two.German university entrance qualifications are obtained by successfully completing 12/13 years of schooling of a German secondary school, including passing the secondary school final examination.Abitur can also be taken by sitting the Abitur examination, by non-pupils or employed people of particular intellectual ability.Internationals whose foreign secondary school-leaving certificate isn’t recognized in Germany for academic studies, they’ve to follow a one year preparatory course and sit the examination for recognition. They have to also present their foreign secondary school-leaving certificate, proof of having passed the university entrance examination in their home country (if applicable), proof of having been enrolled in such university (if applicable), evidence of having passed certain modules (if applicable).
Admission Exam. Some higher education institutions in Germany, especially arts and sport also require for their applicants to sit an admission examination, for examination of their understanding and aptitudes in the core subjects of the study field.
German language command (for international students only). Most of the German higher education institutions, especially those with German-study program, require from their international applicants to have a good knowledge of the German language.Proof of German language can be provided also during studies by any of the following ways:
German Language Diploma of the Standing Conference – Level II (Deutsches Sprachdiplom der Kultusministerkonferenz – Zweite Stufe – DSD II).
German Language Proficiency Examination for Admission to Higher Education for Foreign Applicants (Deutsche Sprachprüfung für den Hochschulzugang ausländischer Studienbewerber – DSH).
Test of German as a Foreign Language for foreign applicants (Test Deutsch als Fremdsprache für ausländischer Studienbewerber – Test DAF)
German language examination as part of the Feststellungsprüfung (assessment test) at a Studienkolleg.
Certificate of the Akademische Prüfstelle (for international students only). Foreign students who’ve completed an Akademische Prüfstelle (APS) in their country (if applicable).
Alternative proofs for refugee students. Refugee students unable to get their foreign university entrance qualification in their home country are allowed to provide alternative documentation for university admission. One of the ways is to sit an entrance examination. Or, a German language assessment test and probably enroll in Studienkolleg before taking the assessment test for recognition.
To apply in a German college of art and music applicants have to submit both:
Higher education entrance qualification.
At times applicants may be admitted without a higher education entrance qualification following the evidence for possessing a special artistic or musical talent.
To apply in a German University of Applied Sciences applicants have to submit both:
Higher education entrance qualification/Fachhochschulreife.
Artistic aptitude (I.e. for design study program).
To apply in a German Berufsakademien, applicants have to submit any of the following:
Higher education entrance qualification.
Fachhochschulreife and entrance examination.
To apply in a German Fachschulen, applicants have to submit any of the following:
Fachhochschulreife (for a recognized profession which needs a prior training).
Proof of minimum 1-year work experience in the profession.
Qualification from the Berufsschule.
Qualification from the Berufsschule/equivalent qualification.
Proof of minimum 5-year work experience in the profession.
Or for social professions:
Proof of relevant education and training.
Admission requirements for the German Master Degree:
Bachelor degree related to the master studies.
Entrance examination (for Master studies in art field).
Special aptitude (for Master studies in art field).
Proof of minimum 1-year work experience
Admission requirements for the German PhD Degree:
Master’s degree. Issued by universities/equivalent institutions or universities of applied sciences, or other institution (if the applicant is well-qualified).
Bachelor’s degree (in some special occasions). This applies if the applicant is well-qualified, and examination to evaluate their aptitudes “Promotionseignungsprüfung” has to take place. Sometimes even a preparatory course.
Evidence of having passed the first state examination “Erste Staatsprüfung”.
German Higher Education Study Courses with Nationwide Quotas
For some German higher education study courses there are quotas, if the number of applications exceeds the number of the offered study places. In such case the Foundation for Higher Education Admission “Stiftung für Hochschulzulassung” (SfH) and the respective institution together admit and disregard applicants based on a central allocation procedure.
The selection of the students in such case is based on:
Relevance and the average grade of their earlier qualification with the study course they’ve applied for (20%).
Awaiting period between taking the university entrance qualification and applying for academic studies (20%).
Selection procedure from the higher education provider where they’ve applied (60%).
German Higher Education Study Courses with Local Restrictions on Admissions
For some other German higher education study courses exists a locally limited number of students for admission. This limitation is usually run by the higher education institution itself or by the SfH.
SfH possesses a joint database that easily compares student applications. If the student has been accepted in another higher education institution, the database frees a study place that can be given to another student.
German Higher Education Study Courses Without Restrictions on the Number of Applicants
For some other German higher education study courses there’s no limit set on the number of students to be admitted. As such, all the applicants who can comply with the admission criteria can enroll in studies free from any pre-selection process.
These institutions, sometimes, may issue a prior notification period, to an accepted student.
What Is Considered Adult Education and Lifelong Learning in Germany?
Continuing education in Germany is the education that is aimed at responding ever-changing demands of the labour market.
This education type is provided by municipal and private institutions, churches, trade unions, chambers of industry and commerce, associations, political parties, businesses, public authorities, academies, family education centers, vocational schools, Fachschulen, radio, television and other institutions.